The Effect of Population Growth on Food Security Situation among Refugees in Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Isingiro District


  • Zamzam Ally
  • Prof. Firimooni R Banugire Bishop Stuart University
  • Assoc. Prof. Gershom Atukunda
  • Johnson Atwine Bishop Stuart University



Population Growth, Food Security and refugees, SPSS, Entrepreneurial and Life Skills


The study was about the effect of population growth on food security situation among the Refugees in Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Isingiro District. The study objectives were; to determine the main population changes taking place in Nakivale Refugee Settlement, and also to establish the effects of age composition on food availability among the Refugees.

The researcher used a cross-sectional research design. The study used a sample size of 133 respondents.

Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis while quantitateive data was analyzed using SPSS. Basing on the field findings, there was a significant relationship between Population Growth and Food Security situation among the Refugees of Nakivale Refugee Settlement. This was due to the fact that when the population fertility and refugee influx is high, food becomes insufficient to the refugees and when the mortality is highly, the population reduces as most of the people become sick and weak and food is highly consumed by the weak people. 

Based on the age composition, it was evident that working age bracket increases food security the fact that most households involved in work and their consumption rate is reserved compared to the younger population who are dependants as well as existing mothers who produce more young kids. The researcher recommends that the government and NGOs institute more technical personnel in the camp to help refugees by training them on better farming skills, helping them to create employment. It is also recommended that the refugees need to be trained with income generating activities both entrepreneurial and life skills. Further recommendation to the government and NGOs is that there should be addition of various food types that refugees prefer to eat, also, different seedlings should be given to refugees for them to grow more crops and improve on yielding. NGOs should intervene towards empowering mothers specifically those who have children below 12 years.

Author Biographies

Zamzam Ally

Corresponding Author

Prof. Firimooni R Banugire, Bishop Stuart University


Assoc. Prof. Gershom Atukunda


Johnson Atwine, Bishop Stuart University



Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development (ACTED, 2013), An Exploration of the Livelihood

Strategies of Durban Congolese Refugees,’ UNHCR Working Paper No.123, New Issues in Refugee Research, UNHCR, Geneva

Alix-Garcia and Bartlett (2012), When is a refugee not a refugee? Flexible social categories and host/refugee relations in Guinea’, UNHCR Working PaperNo.88, New Issues in Refugee Research, UNHCR, Geneva

Alix-Garcia and Bartlett (2012) and Alix-Garcia, Bartlett, and Saah (2013), Burden or Boon: The Impact of Burmese Refugees on Thailand’, The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Winter/Spring

Alix-Garcia and Saah (2009), Sustainable Livelihood Approaches: Progress and Possibilities for Change, DFID, United Kingdom

Apuuli B., Wright J., Elias C. and Burton, (2011), Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century’, IDS Discussion Paper 296, IDS, United Kingdom

Atkin (2013), Refugee camps or cities? The socioeconomic dynamics of the Dadaab and Kakuma camps in Northern Kenya’, Journal of Refugee Studies

Baez (2011), Refugee Livelihoods: a review of the evidence, EPAU, UNHCR, Geneva

Bashaasha .B, Waithaka.M, Kyotalimye. M., (2010), Refugee Livelihoods: a review of the evidence,EPAU, UNHCR, Geneva

Coly et al. (2006); Prentice et al. (2013); and Hirvonen (2014), The economic and food security implications of climate change in Mali. Climate Change, 68: 355_378

Conway and Toenneissen (2003); Gilland (2002); Alexandratos (2005), Countries with Rapid Population Growth and Resource Constraints: Issues of Food, Agriculture, and Development”, Population and Development Review, 31(2) 237–258

Crisp (2010), Maternal nutrition and socio-economic status as determinants of birth weight in chronically malnourished African women” Tropical Medicine & International Health, 2(11): 1080-1087

Czaika and Mayer (2011), Avoiding Conflicts over

Africa's Water Resources” Ambio 31(2): 236-242

Daressa et al, (2013), Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 20670–20674

Ecker and Breisinger (2012), “The trouble with the MDGs: Confronting expectations of aid and development success”, World Development 35(5): 735-751

FAO (2006), ‘Urban refugees in Nairobi: Protection, survival and integration’, Migration Studies No. 23, Forced Migration Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand FAO (2013), ‘New Approaches to Urban Refugee Livelihoods’, Refuge,

FAO, WFP, and IFAD (2017), Exploring the Frontier of Livelihoods Research’, Development and Change, Fisk (2012), “Intensive Farming, Agro-Diversity, and Food Security under Conditions of Extreme Population Pressure in Western Kenya”, Human Ecology, 28(1):19-51

Global acute malnutrition in refugee settlements, December (2016), A Life Course Perspective: Understanding Food Choices in Time, Social Location, and History”, Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(3): 121-128

Goldsmith (2013), “Rapid Population Growth and Water Scarcity: The Predicament of Tomorrow's Africa”, Population and Development Review, 16: 81-94

Hendrix and Brinkman (2013), Investing in women farmers to eliminate food insecurity in southern Africa: policy-related research from Mozambique”, Gender and Development, 16(1): 147-159 Hoddinott (2012), “World population and food supply: can food supply keep pace with population growth in the next half century” Food Policy, 27(1): 47-63

IPC, (2017 report), “Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people”, Science, 12: 812-818 Jacobsen (2002), Enhancing the crops to feed the poor”, Nature

Kibreab (1997); UNEP (2005), The Effect of Refugee Inflows on Host Communities: Evidence from Tanzania.” World Bank Economic Review 24 (1): 148–170

Kreibaum (2013), Civil Wars beyond Their Borders: The Human Capital and Health Consequences of Hosting Refugees.” Journal of Development Economics

Lentz, Passarelli, and Barrett (2013), The Impact of Cash Transfers on Food Consumption in Humanitarian Settings: A Review of Evidence. Winnipeg: Canadian Foodgrains Bank

Lobell et al. (2008), Cash Transfers in Emergencies: A Synthesis of World Vision’s Experience and Learning. Middlesex, UK: World Vision International

Long et al (2006); Muller (2011), Refugee Movements and Aid Responsiveness of Bilateral Donors.” Journal of Development Studies 47 Majid and McDowell 2012;

Menkhaus (2012), Forced Displacement in Africa: Dimensions, Difficulties and Policy Directions.” Refugee Survey Quarterly 29:1–27

Martin 2005; Salehyan and Gleditsch (2006), Preschool Stunting, Adolescent Migration,

Maystadt and Verwimp, forthcoming; Kreibaum (2013); Maystadt and Duranton (2013),

Maystadt and Wervimp (2009), “Humanitarian Presence and Urban Development: New Opportunities and Contrasts in Goma, DRC.” Disasters

Milner and Loescher (2004), Policies and Investments for Poverty Reduction and Food Security. Food Policy Report 25. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute

Morel (2009), Large Refugee Populations, Resource Scarcity and Conflict.” Paper presented at annual conference of the European Political Science Association, Berlin

Nakivale Refugee Settlement report, (2016), Self-reliance for refugees: a view from Nakivale settlement, Humanitarian Innovation Project

Pieters, Guariso, and Vandeplas (2013), Civil War.”Journal of Economic Literature48 (1): 3–57.

Regan and Stam (2000); Regan (2002), Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality? Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

Robeyns (2006), Food Aid after Fifty Years: Recasting Its Role. New York: Routledge

Sanchez et. al (2005), The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder, CO, US: Lynne Rienner Publishers Shroff et al. (2011); Duflo (2012), “Weather Patterns, Food Security and Humanitarian Response in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences

UN (2009), Refugees in the city: status determination, resettlement, and the changing nature of forced migration in Uganda’, Refugee Law Project Working Paper No. 6, Kampala, Refugee Law Project

UNHCR (1998), Humanitarian innovation and refugee protection’, Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper No. 85, Oxford, University of Oxford

UNHCR (2017 reports), “Mainstreaming livelihoods support: the Refugee Livelihood Project”, Forced Migration”

UNHCR, (2012), ‘Displacement in urban areas: New challenges, new partnerships’, Disaster, 36, S1, S23S42

WFP (2011), (2013a), (2013b), Moving up and down looking for money’: Making a living in a Ugandan Refugee Camp’, In Livelihoods at the Margins: Surviving the City, (ed.) Staples, J., Walnut Creek: West Coast Press

World Bank (2011), ‘Minimum standards and essential needs in a protracted refugee situation. A review of the UNHCR programme in Kakuma, Kenya’, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, UNHCR, Geneva

Zetter (1995); Crisp (2010); World Bank (2011), Poverty is Bad: Ways Forward in Livelihood Research, CERES, Research School for Resource Studies for Development, University of Utrecht.




How to Cite

Ally, Z., Banugire, F. R., Atukunda, G., & Atwine, J. (2023). The Effect of Population Growth on Food Security Situation among Refugees in Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Isingiro District . Bishop Stuart University Journal of Development, Education & Technology, 1(1), 95–124.